Essay on commodification
Total capitalism: capital shoots itself in the foot The logical end of neoliberalism is the commodification of everything — everything from speculating on the future prices of staple foods [pdf] and housing to making profits from prisons. To ensure that content will always remain available to the public, the output of production is often released under a specific regime that prevents anyone from subsequently turning it into a commodity the regime of information commons. Branded producers often suffer under commoditization, since the value of the brand and ability to command price premiums can be weakened. The loss of a brake on the process delivers irrational and self-defeating consequences. As I grew older, I began to notice the paradox of rising prices and declining quality in products like food and clothing. The terms commodification and commoditization are sometimes used synonymously,  particularly in the sense of this article, to describe the process of making commodities out of anything that was not used to be available for trade previously; compare anthropology usage. The extensional excessive commodification mentioned above means that commodification has permeated a domain called the modern state and modern family who do not get used to the logic of a market from the beginning. As car manufacturers substituted mass production technology for manual labour, jobs were lost in car-making but created in the production of services needed for mass production — layers of management, design, research and development, accounting, record-keeping, advertising, marketing, finance and insurance, legal services. In the context of FLOSS, this type of commercialization is generally achieved through the sale of proprietary versions with additional features, specialized hardware that is compatible with the software, support or customization services. In advanced capitalist countries this process is now outstripping our political and social capacity to adjust to it. A second phenomenon that must be distinguished from the commodification of information commons is the one of cooptation: i. One is the limited substitutability of capital for labour.
Cooptation can be a consequence of commercialization happening around the commons as in the cases outlined abovebut it is a more subtle and nuanced phenomenon. Total capitalism: capital shoots itself in the foot The logical end of neoliberalism is the commodification of everything — everything from speculating on the future prices of staple foods [pdf] and housing to making profits from prisons.
Activists' hard works are marketable to the masses without accountability.
Although they cannot be commodified, information commons can nonetheless be exploited by the market economy. When personnel administration is out-sourced, the data leak.
The loss of a brake on the process delivers irrational and self-defeating consequences. Conversely, to the extent that they cannot fully control the content they have produced as it is now hosted in the infrastructure owned by the providerusers cannot freely dispose of it—regardless of whether or not it has been released into the commons.
Worst of all, things that were once considered free and everlasting, like art and love, were transformed into discounted, disposable products right before my eyes.
Why is commodification bad
Those are, however, the most widely used types of licences: according to an estimate by Creative Commons in , almost half the works using their licenses used those with clauses precluding commercial usage—including the making of derived works. The logic that capital money , land, labor is commodified is developed. With the advent of global capitalism, and in the absence of a global state, no such mechanism is in sight. An example of commodification is the colors red, black, and green, which are the colors of the African Liberation Army ALA. This can be done, for instance, by incorporating protected material into an information commons e. Love is commodified. When personnel administration is out-sourced, the data leak. The commodification of information allows a higher up authority to make money rather than a collaborative system of free thoughts. In addition to being swallowed up by the United States on three sides, southwestern Ontario is the most densely populated, polluted and heavily industrialised part of Canada. The outsourcing of major sectors of policy development to management consultancy firms such as McKinsey and Co.
For the purpose of this paper, we have adopted an operational definition of commodity, similar to that of Karl Polanyi , 72 : a private good, produced through a process which is mostly driven by market needs or considerations as opposed to a process driven by direct needs or considerations of a community.
Growing up in the s in southwestern Ontario, the effects of commodification were an integral part of my reality.
Commodification of culture theory
They can maximise profits in various ways, many of which tend to convert things or services into new commodities. The commodification of agriculture leads to factory farming, extreme concentration of livestock and an increased risk of epidemics. In addition, because they are paid to deliver value to shareholders, they have an incentive to over-treat — to do unnecessary tests, scans, and even operations, because it pays. Terminology[ edit ] The earliest use of the word commodification in English attested in the Oxford English Dictionary dates from The extensional excessive commodification mentioned above means that commodification has permeated a domain called the modern state and modern family who do not get used to the logic of a market from the beginning. This illustrates how markets might frequently be better in signalling the profitability of an endeavour than the needs of communities. An example of commodification is the colors red, black, and green, which are the colors of the African Liberation Army ALA. Finally, commercialization around the commons can also be achieved by means of advertising. Second, if a commodity can be shared amongst several individuals, it will be less scarce and thus less valuable as a commodity than if it was exclusively controlled by one person. To the extent that content is only available through the interface provided by the cloud provider, users can no longer access the source file of such content. Any useful economic analysis needs to foreground this process. Given that information stored into the cloud is made available to the public through a specific, provider-controlled user interface be it a graphical user interface, or an application programming interface , cloud providers can unilaterally determine the extent to which and the manner in which information commons can be accessed, used or reused. For people of African descent these colors represent red the innocent bloodshed of Africans , black African people and green stolen land of Africa.
While commodification presupposes commercialization, the reverse is not always true.
based on 108 review