Introduction to age of exploration

European medieval knowledge about Asia beyond the reach of the Byzantine Empire was sourced in partial reports, often obscured by legends, [16] dating back from the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great and his successors.

age of exploration timeline

The importance of trade made it so that traders and merchants, not the feudal landowners, were the most powerful class in society. A number of French and English explorers followed, including Giovanni da Verrazano, who discovered the entrance to the Hudson River inand Henry Hudson, who mapped the island of Manhattan first in Continue Reading.

Age of exploration definition

Dutch, French, and British ships began to flaunt the Portuguese monopoly and found trading forts and colonies of their own. It resolved by Papal intervention in when the Treaty of Tordesillas divided the world between the two powers. There were reports of great African Sahara , but the factual knowledge was limited for the Europeans to the Mediterranean coasts and little else since the Arab blockade of North Africa precluded exploration inland. Between and a book of supposed travels compiled by John Mandeville acquired extraordinary popularity. Likewise, Europeans had never seen turkeys, llamas, or squirrels before setting foot in the Americas. These charts specified proven ocean routes guided by coastal landmarks: sailors departed from a known point, followed a compass heading, and tried to identify their location by its landmarks. It had been used for navigation in China by the 11th century and was adopted by the Arab traders in the Indian Ocean. He also explored the island of Hispaniola, home of modern-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

The Portuguese also reached the New World when explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral explored Brazil, setting off a conflict between Spain and Portugal over the newly claimed lands.

Geography The Age of Exploration was one of the most important times in the history of world geography.

why was the age of exploration important

The first of the journeys associated with the Age of Discovery were conducted by the Portuguese. The most important development was the invention of first the Carrack and then caravel in Iberia. These overland journeys had little immediate effect.

Introduction to age of exploration

Arab navigational tools like the astrolabe and quadrant were used for celestial navigation. Much of Africa also was unexplored by Westerners until the early 20th centuries. Instead of reaching India, Columbus found the island of San Salvador in what is known today as the Bahamas. Unlike Africa or Asia the Caribbean islanders had little to trade with the Spanish ships. The Javanese already reached Ghana by the 8th century. England established the first permanent colony in North America at Jamestown, Va. Also, many advances were made in navigation and mapping which helped future explorers and travelers. They also found new land where colonies could be established and crops such as sugar, cotton, and tobacco could be grown. The End of the Era The Age of Exploration ended in the early 17th century after technological advancements and increased knowledge of the world allowed Europeans to travel easily across the globe by sea.

Indigenous people were decimated by Europeans, from a combined impact of disease, overwork, and massacres. When the Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople inmany existing trade routes to India and China were shut down.

Age of exploration explorers

Arab navigational tools like the astrolabe and quadrant were used for celestial navigation. It also provided a platform for cosmopolitan discourses, which took place in locations such as the ships of the Ming treasure fleet, the Ming capitals of Nanjing as well as Beijing, and the banquet receptions organized by the Ming court for foreign representatives. Indigenous people were decimated by Europeans, from a combined impact of disease, overwork, and massacres. The northerners also took the lead in exploring the last unknown regions of the Pacific Ocean. Listen to a recorded reading of this page: Your browser does not support the audio element. Methods of navigation and mapping improved as a result of the travels of people such as Prince Henry the Navigator. The compass was an addition to the ancient method of navigation based on sightings of the sun and stars. Following the period of exploration was the Commercial Revolution when trans-oceanic trade became commonplace. Under the direction of Henry the Navigator , the Portuguese developed a new, much lighter ship, the caravel , which could sail farther and faster, [4] and, above all, was highly manoeuvrable and could sail much nearer the wind, or into the wind.

Many ships never returned.

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